About the Kp index

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval.

The official planetary Kp-index is derived by calculating a weighted average of K-indices from a network of geomagnetic observatories. Since these observatories do not report their data in real-time, various operations centers around the globe estimate the index based on data available from their local network of observatories. The Kp-index was introduced by Bartels in 1939.

Kp values

The Kp-index values were prepared by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center.